Course attendee comment

This short 2 minute video testimonial is from a Doctor of Emergency Medicine reflecting on how she has seen the significant benefits of Atrainability Human Factors training

 

 

Atrainability Blog

Here we share some thoughts, insights and ideas related to Human Factors Training

I could have told you that

Many high-performing professionals make their job look easy. Well maybe not micro-surgery but aviation is a good example that it seems is widely misunderstood. I hear many people say "you pilots don't understand – we deal with sick people who aren't OK when we start treating them. You wouldn't get airborne in a plane that wasn't OK" 

Well pretty much of course not. But if only life were that simple! Pilots and for that matter cabin crew, are there for emergencies, generally unanticipated, often at periods of low arousal. Look at Kegworth – 1989 - routine flight Heathrow- Belfast - relaxed take-off and climb and suddenly an engine breaks apart. The crew, who must have been terrified, misidentify the problem and shut down the wrong engine. 47 people die.

Lessons learned? Well it is an imperfect World and the same essential error happened in Taiwan in January 2015. You will probably remember the horrific images of the plane with wings vertical crossing a bridge before plunging into the river killing 43. The error was the wrong engine shut down again.

However we all now accept that flying is significantly safer than any other form of transport taking into account the number of flights per annum. Things do go wrong but what helps prevent tragic potentially fatal accidents is training and preparation. Especially thinking ahead and discussing what could go wrong and having a plan in place for how it would be handled if it did. Think Captain Sullenberger and crew and the Hudson River successful outcome.

How often have you said with hindsight "I could have seen that coming" or "I could have told you that would happen"? Experience is a great learning tool but trial and error is simply not acceptable.

That seems to be what healthcare is doing though. There is still a general reluctance to learn day to day success, failure and near-misses.

This is what Human Factors training can aid such as how to share plans across the team and encourage input from everyone who might spot the impending threat and intervene for safety. Even more so when it comes to post-hoc debriefing discussions about what worked well and what could be improved.

When you get down to it aviation and health and social care is about risk management. Risk management is about Human Factors. Mental preparedness and appropriate hierarchy and open communication.

Continue reading
2939 Hits
0 Comments

Inappropriate hierarchy and what to do about it

BBC Radio 4 - From the Cockpit to the Operating Theatre

Why lessons learned from aviation psychology are starting to save lives in hospitals.

​Matt Lindley, trainer and coach with Atrainability, featured in a radio broadcast recently on the BBC, alongside Prof Rhona Flin and other eminent healthcare experts, speaking about the problems of dealing with inappropriate hierarchy when it comes to safety. 

Matt's background is Royal Air Force and now British Airways where he flies long haul around the World. He has an extensive training experience which for the most recent few years has expanded into Health and Social Care with Atrainability.

Clearly both military and commercial aviation enjoy the benefits and problems associated with hierarchy. Both have developed tools to try and get the message through when safety is paramount. In my case, starting flying in 1971, the hierarchy or Authority Gradient was a real problem. Captains were never called by their given name, but always 'Sir' or 'Captain' on and off the aircraft.

Just to explain the concept of the Authority Gradient this is the view from the top person versus the view from the junior. If you ever hear someone say "I could have told you that" the immediate question must be "why didn't you?" or perhaps "what is it about me that stopped you?"

How many of us believe we are very approachable but then find one of our team has hesitated to challenge what we are saying or doing? I've been there and it is a terrifying bit of personal feedback. In my case I was a Training and Checking Captain with real power over other pilot's futures. I was the veritable scary monster that triggered fear – irrational I hope, but perceived real in the moment nonetheless.

The one advantage aviation has, of course, is the 'Black Box' – real evidence of what was said and done. Thus we know that the various Human Factors are a problem. It is often said that 90% of air crashes someone is heard to voice concerns but not effectively enough to stop the ensuing accident. Aviation works very hard to deal with this and effective balanced assertiveness, perhaps using a 'Trigger' word to get attention.

We teach these techniques in Health and Social Care supported by coaching in the live or simulated workplace to get to those who, for whatever reason, find class too difficult to attend!

So the responsibility lies throughout the team – the leaders, recognising that they may not be as approachable as they think, should encourage appropriate questioning. Those more junior in status should never assume and always accept their role in checking the correct process is taking place. 'Trigger' words work very well in health and social care too. "Gorilla???"

Our Human Factors Open Courses are the perfect introduction for both front line staff and managers who want to understand how they can improve issues such as inappropriate hierarchy, among others. Discounts are available for early bird bookings, but please do get in touch if you'd like a more bespoke, in-house traininig soultion for your team. We'd be happy to help you.


Continue reading
3926 Hits
0 Comments

Human Factors Training – Published evidence that it works!

We all know how challenging it can be to find good quality hard evidence that training teams and leaders in Human Factors awareness and skills enhances Patient Safety. Health Education England are seeking such evidence now for all forms of training. Quite right too. We have worked with various teams over the years notably at the University of Oxford with varying degrees of success. There are a plethora of published papers out there with our names on them. One of the arguments has been what to measure and I believe firmly that the only real measure is patient outcome. We have taken part in other recent research and I am led to believe that some further positive results will shortly be published. 

Some of you who have been with us a while will know that we were invited in to Newcastle Neurosurgery unit by Patrick Mitchell, the clinical lead, in 2006 where after some in-house training they had reduced the wrong-side error rate for cranial and spinal procedures dramatically (from 1 in 300) but then had a recurrence. 
The training consisted of putting all the direct theatre team and their immediate leaders through a one day interactive training course in understanding the problems around human behaviour and fallibility and practical solutions. This was supported by coaching to help embed the skills in practice. I think it is fair to add that two senior team members found it difficult to attend.
The result is now over 5 ½ years without a side error from a pre-intervention rate of 1 in 300! That is over 21,500 sided procedures in the unit with essentially the same entire team, although one of the senior clinicians did leave a couple of years ago – to concentrate on private practice.
 
The results have been published and is available to download freely - Click here to view full report in PDF format
 
I don’t believe it is unfair to say that the fundamental issues were around behaviour, especially team briefings and checklist discipline. Incidentally this was before the WHO checklist was published. Patrick Mitchell is a private pilot himself and has a clear understanding of the importance of checklists in safe performance. 
I would like to emphasise that the Atrainability team didn't achieve this –we simply helped the front-line team to build and maintain the confidence and skills to deal with the problems successfully. 
We encourage all our clients, colleagues and prospective clients to continue to seek and share evidence and best practice to improve Patient Safety for everyone. 
The Atrainability team are of course, very happy to explore further opportunities to develop solutions to human error, poor behaviour and help teams avoid avoidable harm.
 
Continue reading
4371 Hits
0 Comments

Human Factors are not just for Christmas

The Festive Season is upon us again and thoughts turn to gifts. What finer gift than support for a Human Factors Training programme?

 

It is apparent that the importance of Human Factors training across all workplaces is being recognised after all this time. How pleased Martin Bromiley must be.

One of the most pleasing changes this year has been the growth in organisations that realise that short interventions are a waste of effort and money.

You don’t change the culture (whatever that means) with a few hours of classroom chat about how to avoid errors.

This year has seen a number of NHS Trusts and private healthcare providers come to us and ask for programmes that address deep-rooted issues. We have started programmes of in-depth training of managers and team leaders to help enable them to understand the flaws in the processes and procedures that their staff have to deal with - the error-provoking conditions under which the front-line staff work. These are the holes in the Swiss Cheese models!

One of the delightful comments we received was from a middle manager in a mental health Trust who had performed a disciplinary procedure quite differently after an Atrainability course. She said that beforehand the staff member would probably have been sacked for violating procedures. But she then realised that it had been done with the best interests of the service user in mind. There was no desire to harm, no malice. So they have kept their job, albeit with a comment on their personal file, but the lessons are shared with others. A palpable shift to a ‘Learning Organisation’.

I know the aviation comparisons are sometimes overplayed but please bear in mind that Human Factors are taken seriously enough that by law they must be refresher-trained each year. Once a foundation knowledge and understanding is embedded within the organisation, refreshing and updating is comparatively easy.

So like the proverbial puppy, Human Factors is not just for Christmas it is for life – literally!

May we at Atrainability wish you all a very Happy Christmas season and a safe, effective New Year.

 

Continue reading
3525 Hits
0 Comments

We promote what we tolerate.

It was very good to see so many old friends at NAMEM (National Association of Medical Education Managers conference) recently and particularly put faces to those names!

What will probably stick in all our minds was the talk by Dr Victoria Bradley on her culture-changing experiences and her successful challenge of an unsafe clinical department situation. It was a pleasure to hear that her bold actions brought real front-line improvements in staffing levels and patient care.

She had to overcome her concerns about ‘whistle-blowing’ and potential repercussions and having done so was rewarded and thanked by very senior management in her Trust. Quite right too. But sadly this is not a frequent occurrence regarding the happy ending.

Frequently we hear course delegates stating that they don’t feel confident in raising concerns and in some situations don’t feel anyone is listening and nothing will change.

However how does this fit with duty of candour? We promote what we accept and tolerate. Turning a blind eye is simply not professional.

However the multiple reasons why so many of us don’t challenge unsafe or unprofessional situations are understandable and often a facet of our very essence of being human, such as the Fight, Flight, Freeze response. We have recently run several courses when admissions of passive behaviour have been manifest. But we at Atrainability have found we can help rebuild that confidence and re-motivate team members to speak up with appropriate persistence.

Courses combined with individual and team coaching helps build more-effective safer team-working. We are constantly developing new material, with a focus on advanced Human Factors looking at Stress Solutions and dealing with difficult people – including colleagues!

 

 

Continue reading
612 Hits
0 Comments

Human Factors - common sense made conscious

We have begun a major training programme at a large private healthcare provider in London where all staff are attending an initial very short introductory module on Human Factors. 
The content is limited to why the subject is relevant to them all, some explanations of why we are all fallible and a few practical takeaway tools on how to try and avoid things going wrong. The long term plan is to continue to work together and build a sustainable high reliability organisation with safety at its core. 
Later in the Autumn it will include training trainers and champions to embed safe policies and procedures and seek to support staff.
The Director of Nursing had been actively seeking such training and has been a fantastic advocate, but the clincher was getting to present to the Board. 
The Chief Executive is a smart no-nonsense lady. I asked her and her senior colleagues if they knew what Human Factors is. Her instant response "well it's just common sense". Of course it is, but the trick is how to bring that to the conscious brain when faced with all the pressures and hazards of everyday work life.
That is where we seem to be helping judging by the feedback from the attendees. They love the simple messages and that we are talking their language.
Mind you it's quite a challenge with each class containing up to 30 from every area in the Hospital from finance through reception to ITU and theatre teams.
It is fun, engaging and at first sight seems to be making a tangible difference. 
Here is an example of unsolicited feedback from an ODP in paediatric theatres:
 
"I just wanted to say how much I enjoyed the training session. I think Ben delivered a really good session and I personally learned a great deal. It has given me some good ideas of ways we can improve our day to day practice within our department and has inspired me to look further into the human factors training principals and background.
If you could pass my thanks on to him that would be appreciated."

The icing on the cake, though, is that the Executive Board are all attending alongside all the 600 staff. 
Now that shows what leadership should be and will undoubtedly have a profound positive effect.

Continue reading
4415 Hits
0 Comments

Reporting Near Misses - Untoward Incident or Known Complication?

The benefits of reporting near misses are surely beyond dispute. Each close shave is a learning opportunity which should be shared with others. Does every doctor need to experience problems first hand and patients endure possible harm in order to gain a high level? 

I have recently heard of an incident in maxilla-facial surgery which has disquieted me. A senior consultant decided to perform two lengthy operations in one day and incur a significant overrun to the detriment of the theatre teams. It had been possible to ask a fellow senior surgeon to take on one case and indeed such an offer had been made. The offer was impolitely refused.
The second procedure was commenced at 4 pm and involved a neck dissection. Unfortunately a small tear was made in the lower end of the jugular vein where it joined the subclavian vein. The anatomy was non-normal in that the vein was above the clavicle rather than under.
 
There was considerable haemorrhage which was not controllable. Vascular surgeons were called and the vessel was approached from the anterior chest wall, but were unable to control the bleeding. Eventually orthopaedic surgeons were called to divide the clavicle and the tear was over-sewed. The patient lost 18 units of blood and the cell-saver was used successfully to replace lost blood. The anaesthetist performed very well in difficult circumstances.
 
What could be learned?

The surgeon did not consider this a reportable incident and indeed was most vociferous in wishing it not to be reported. One must ask why? Does it indicate fear of the local culture? Or is it something more ego-driven?
 
What would you consider the professional response?
 
Surely if this is a recognised non-normal anatomical situation it should be shared to help junior doctors learn to avoid it happening to them?
 
How can we make it ‘safe’ to report near-misses and move the whole culture closer to the aviation model where incident reporting is actively encouraged? 

We specialise in training for debriefing to learn. Blame serves little useful purpose unless people are wilfully ignoring rules and due process.
 
Training utilises the greatest resource – a team member who may have made a mistake despite trying their best not to. What a resource to help the whole organisation learn! Shame to waste it.

Continue reading
6298 Hits
0 Comments

Lighting the Blue Touchpaper

Lighting the blue touch paper

The trainers are excellent, engaging, knowledgeable and enthusiastic. The Training was brilliant and it has really set fire to my personal blue touch paper. It has made me think about how to look at things differently, and as a result I revisited a policy I am working on; so that lessons learned can be applied in a more meaningful, informative way, rather than staff feel they are being blamed and penalised.

Project Lead, Safe Services, Cheshire and Wirral Partnership Foundation Trust

This was feedback from this week when we presented a train the trainer course for Cheshire and Wirral Partnership Mental Health Trust. This is the second in a series aiming to bring about sustainable improvements in a Zero Harm campaign. Other selected comments from the evaluation sheets:

 

·         Very eye-opening course which used common-sense ideas & delivered them in a structured constructive manner

·         Thoroughly enjoyable & thought-provoking. Ought to be part of mandatory training

·         Need more staff from clinical area to attend this training to enhance knowledge, practice, empower them.

·         Hope the Trust fully embeds this learning into the culture

·         Excellent course – pragmatic, common sense & gives words to describe how I feel about potential change culture

The initial response has been fantastic.

 

At the end of Day 1 one of the delegates from the first course spoke passionately of the changes she now felt able to make. She really enthused her colleagues.

Most startling and pleasing was to hear from her how what had begun as a disciplinary inquiry became a lesson in learning and understanding the good reasons why a staff member had deviated from procedures in efforts to do the best for the patient or service user.

We offer a flow chart based on that of Professor James Reason that clarifies when training is the correct treatment for rule violations and those rare occasions when disciplinary action is necessary.

In simple terms if you are not employing psychopaths or sociopaths in your teams, then most errors are unintentional or made with good outcomes in mind.

Understanding why and how errors are made at the Human level is so beneficial to creating a resilient high performing sustainable system.

It could even mean a redesign of some procedures. Many of our clients are doing that now.

If it results in a reduction in avoidable harm it must make sense!

Continue reading
3876 Hits
0 Comments

Real positive change at the frontline

The Patient Safety Congress is in Liverpool this week, and the subject of Human factors is to the fore. Back at the front-line we are delighted to report that feedback from nursing staff at one department we have recently trained has reported real improvements in team practice and hence morale -

"Since we attended the Human Factors course, we now, as a department have daily meetings to discuss ‘job’ allocation, so that everybody is aware of what is expected of them during the day. This is working particularly well, everybody is now focussed on what they need to do, rather than overlapping, and tripping over each other,

We also have a  debrief at some point in the day, to ensure everything is  still running smoothly, and talk about any problems or situations that may have arisen through the day. All the nursing staff are very happy implementing this, and wish as a group to say thanks again."

This was a result of a whole department enjoying a full day of class-based training consisting of:

Ø  Introduction to Human Factors

Ø  How & why we make errors

Ø  Situation Awareness

Ø  Decision Making

Ø  Communication

Ø  Dealing with difficult people

Ø  Leadership & team-working

Ø  Briefing & Checklists

Ø  Debriefing for Learning

It was a full day but enjoyable all round. Not bad when you consider it included the whole range of staff from clerks, reception staff through nurses and ophthalmologists! Phew.
Continue reading
4001 Hits
0 Comments

Safety in Neurosurgery - a successful Human Factors intervention

 
Five years have now passed since the Atrainability team helped a neurosurgery unit in the North East of England overcome a string of major wrong side errors. 
Prior to our training and coaching intervention their had been a rate of 1 in 300 wrong side errors. The surgical Lead had instituted a 'knife' check - a check that everything was as it should be pre-knife to skin - but then another error occurred.
 
Atrainability trained almost all the team members in how to avoid and trap errors and particularly how to assert the need to brief the team and check all appropriate items, including of course surgical site. One or two senior team members were unable to attend but those who did were trained in dealing with colleagues who were not keen on such non-technical matters, politely but firmly.
This was all before the WHO checklist had been mandated.
The result is now five years without another incident. Time between error is the measure and is statistically valid.
 
It is a sad fact that many organisations contain 'difficult' people who feel their skills are being questioned. Not everyone is open to comments about their behaviour. It is not an accepted part of the culture in many areas of healthcare. But if the team stand united and firm, challenging individuals can be handled without any unpleasantness. 
 
Although not part of an academic randomised control trial, these results are notable and a splendid testament to what can be achieved in the name of patient safety.
 
As the Surgical Lead said - "The error you have to prevent is 2 years from now, out of hours, when you are on holiday and a locum surgeon you will never meet is operating at night with a junior anaesthetist and newly appointed scrub nurse."
 
For those still sceptical, consider the cost of training against the cost of compensation and litigation. It is an investment well worth considering.
Continue reading
4102 Hits
0 Comments